I went to AOL itself (I don't normally visit mail websites, using instead the built-in Apple Mail client on my MacBook to gather up all of our emails from all accounts in its in-boxes) to see if there was some kind of setting I could adjust to improve spam blockage. Indeed, I was able to switch from "medium" blockage to "high" blockage, which they claim will eliminate virtually all spam. It does seem to help a little bit. Apple Mail says that my AOL spam box has accumulated over 600 spam messages in the last week. But about 200 of them have still gotten through, all of which I have forwarded to AOL's abuse-reporting address.
While I am still getting way too much spam, I seem to have at least stopped the recurring message with the image of the Octet of Douchebaggery (Canterbury) that was driving me insane. I am not sure if spam blockage or abuse reporting did the job on that. Or maybe it could have been me actually replying to the message with very crazy, mean and brutal messages of my own.